Following the European Commission’s Action Plan, a number of themes will be considered, within the local context when developing a strategy for the circular economy. The main themes identified are divided into two sub-categories; the biological ecosystem and the technological ecosystem.
The Ellen MacArthur Foundation summarises the two cycles or ecosystems as follows, consumption happens only in biological cycles, where food and biologically-based materials (such as wood) are designed to feed back into the system through processes like composting and anaerobic digestion. These cycles regenerate living systems, such as soil, which provide renewable resources for the economy. Technical cycles recover and restore products, components, and materials through strategies like reuse, repair, remanufacture or (in the last resort) recycling.