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In addition to focusing on brand beliefs and attitudes menstrual cramps buy 2.5mg femara, persuasion-based promotions also commonly link products with desirable images (such as lifestyle imagery) and identities (such as slogans menopause gas bloating buy femara 2.5 mg, jingles women's health clinic greenville tx purchase 2.5 mg femara, or brand symbols) menstrual related migraines best 2.5mg femara. The aim is for consumers to associate the brand or product use with either positive emotions or the reduction of negative emotions. Persuasion strategies that focus on desirable image and identity characteristics are particularly important for product categories such as cigarettes, because differences among various brands are often very subtle or intangible. Finally, promotions with the goal of reminding are typically directed toward buyers who already have positive, well-established attitudes about a product, including its price, features, availability, or image. Rather, promotions tend to be directed toward well-defined consumer groups according to dimensions such as age, gender, ethnicity, income, occupation, religion, family life cycle, place of residence, lifestyles, interests, and values. Chapter 5 discusses several population groups defined by these dimensions that have been targeted by tobacco companies. The message in a segmented marketing campaign typically has reasonably broad appeal. The target audience will heavily affect communication decisions regarding what will be said, how it will be said, when it will be said, where it will be said, and who will say it. Gender Tobacco marketing aimed at women dates back to the 1920s, when American Tobacco urged women to "Reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet," playing directly to concerns about body weight8,9 (chapter 5). The audience may consist of potential buyers, current users, those who make the buying decision, or those who influence it. Segmentation is a commonly used approach for defining the target market, in which specific audiences are identified for a product by dividing a mass market into subsets on the basis of variables such as demographics, geography, preference for product benefits, consumption patterns, and psychographics. Key Principles of Promotion and Rationales for Regulation are promoted as "feminine" and explicitly targeted toward women (chapter 5 also includes discussion about cigarette brands targeted toward men). Race/Ethnicity Roughly three-fourths of African-American smokers consume mentholated cigarettes, with Newport, Kool, and Salem representing the most popular brands. For example, n Brands offering relatively high tar content and strong flavors are promoted as "masculine," often corresponding with appeals that have an action, excitement, and adventure orientation. Brands with cross-gender positioning often use promotional appeals designed to attract both sexes, such as messages about upward status and being upscale. The Role of the Media brands are commonly depicted in cigarette advertising that is targeted toward African Americans. As documented by Balbach and colleagues,16 internal tobacco industry documents show that advertising for menthol brands was designed around lifestyle appeals relating to "fantasy and escapism," "expensive objects," and "nightlife, entertainment, and music" themes. Appeals designed around concepts of "youthfulness, silliness, and fun" were also aimed at African Americans, as well as messages conveying the refreshing and medicinal aspects of menthol. Detroit, Baltimore, Washington, Memphis, Birmingham, Jackson, and New Orleans are other U. Reviews of internal tobacco industry documents reveal that cigarette trademarks are successfully marketed to youth, including consumers who are classified as "starters" or "new smokers" (chapters 5 and 7). The rationale for directing promotions toward youth is that the pivotal period for smoking initiation in the United States is early adolescence. Smokers are also known to be extremely brand loyal, so the brand choice of consumers during the early stages of their smoking "careers" becomes crucial. In the United States, less than 10% of smokers switch brands annually, with less than 8% switching companies. Researchers who examined tobacco industry documents that are accessible primarily as a result of two sets of court proceedings in Canada-the 1989 federal trial to decide the constitutionality of the Tobacco Products Control Act and the 2002 Quebec Superior Court trial to determine the constitutionality of the Tobacco Act-have reached similar conclusions. Market research for Lorillard Tobacco revealed, "The success of Newport has been fantastic during the past few years. Key Principles of Promotion and Rationales for Regulation shows this brand being purchased by black people (all ages), young adults (usually college age), but the base of our business is the high school student. Promotion philosophy of trial generation and meeting competition approved"20(Bates no. Cigarette advertising that is targeted at 18- to 24 year-olds often can appeal simultaneously to young adults and adolescents because many teenagers start smoking as a way to propel themselves into maturity.

Singer (1993) highlighted the problem of using large-scale geologic maps pregnancy 7 weeks spotting quality 2.5 mg femara, which can result in generalization of a given tract menopause hot flashes femara 2.5 mg, or of arbitrarily enlarging a tract in order to include deposit types that occur in restricted settings menstrual cramps 5 weeks pregnant safe 2.5 mg femara. A more detailed analysis of the problem was done by Singer and Menzie (2008) women's health clinic portlaoise safe 2.5mg femara, who found that use of more generalized maps tends to favor inclusion of geologic settings that are not permissive for a given deposit type, or of unreported cover sequences with permissive tracts thus producing a misleading appearance of clustered deposits. Disseminated sulfides such as those in footwall feeder zones can be delineated by induced polarization, which targets sulfide grains that are not electrically connected (Ford and others, 2007). Gravity surveys are especially useful for identifying high-density units such as barite-rich exhalites or Zn-rich massive sulfide that otherwise are poor geophysical targets. Attributes Required for Inclusion in Permissive Tracts at Various Scales A permissive tract in mineral resource assessments is defined as an area where geologic features permit the occurrence of one or more deposit types (for example, Singer, 1993). Favorable geology is the most important attribute for identifying a permissive tract. Other positive Factors Influencing Undiscovered Deposit Estimates (Deposit Size and Density) Estimates of the size and density of undiscovered mineral deposits are affected by several factors. This clustering of deposits was also highlighted by Galley and others (2007), who proposed that the diameter of each group of clustered deposits reflects the extent of regional-scale hydrothermal alteration systems; the References Cited distribution of deposits within each cluster relates to synvolcanic fault distribution above subvolcanic intrusions. Caution must be used in applying this caldera-based approach to highly deformed terranes, however, because of deformational effects on original geometry (Hollister, 1980) and, hence, on the related density of undiscovered deposits. This range of densities includes data for the back-arc Valu Fa Ridge, the Tonga and Kermadec arcs, and mid-ocean ridges in the eastern Pacific Ocean. In ancient settings, deposit spacings are related to a variety of processes, yielding an estimated 5-km diameter for the scale of proximal hydrothermal alteration around each deposit (Galley and others, 2007). Their study used frequency distributions of deposit densities for 38 well-explored control areas worldwide. Map scales used to delineate permissive tracts also must be considered because they directly affect the spatial and frequency distribution of deposits and thus deposit densities (Singer, 2008; Singer and Menzie, 2008). Estimates of the sizes of undiscovered mineral deposits rely mainly on statistical data for grades and tonnages for a given deposit type (for example, Cox and Singer, 1986). The largest resources of metals typically are contained in a few giant orebodies, hence very small or low-grade deposits do not greatly affect grade-tonnage distributions. Differences in cutoff grades and other economic factors are not significant, having minimal or at most minor influences on these parameters (Singer, 1993). Relationships derived from statistical studies, including those between sizes of permissive areas and deposit density, can thus be used together with grade-tonnage models as predictors of the number of undiscovered deposits and the total amount of undiscovered metal (Singer, 2008). Also important are craton- and terrane-scale features that likely determine metal endowment, including the occurrence and location of giant and super-giant deposits (Jaireth and Huston, 2010). Application of mineralogy and mineral and bulk compositions to massive sulfide exploration, in Goodfellow, W. Bulk and rare earth element geochemistry and implications for origin, in Goodfellow, W. Graphs showing geochemical data for waters associated with unmined massive sulfide deposits. Graphs showing geochemical data for major constituents in mine drainage associated with massive sulfide deposits. Graphs showing geochemical data for minor constituents in mine drainage associated with massive sulfide deposits. Graphs showing geochemical data for dissolved metals in drainage associated with massive sulfide deposits. Selected common mineralogical characteristics of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits with a comparison to sedimentary-exhalative deposits. Acid-mine drainage is one of the most significant challenges associated with these deposits due to the abundance of pyrite, pyrrhotite, or both iron sulfides and the general lack of any significant neutralizing potential or alkalinity. The geochemistry of acid-mine drainage has been reviewed by Nordstrom and Alpers (1999a), and additional aspects of the weathering of a variety of ore and gangue minerals were discussed by Plumlee (1999). Seal and others (2001a), Seal and Hammarstrom (2003), and Seal (2004) have reviewed the geoenvironmental characteristics of volcanichosted massive sulfide deposits. Geochemical aspects of the formation of acid-mine drainage and its burden of metals and other elements of concern can be divided into three broad topics: (1) sulfide oxidation, acid generation, and acid neutralization processes; (2) metal cycling associated with secondary efflorescent sulfate salts; and (3) secondary precipitation of hydroxides and hydroxysulfates and associated sorption of metals. Thus, the chemistry of drainage from a mine site is the result of the competing processes of acid generation and acid neutralization.

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New technologies such as the Internet women's health clinic london ontario king street order 2.5 mg femara, handheld computers zapata women's health center quality 2.5 mg femara, and mobile telephones have revolutionized the ways people obtain their news menstruation and anxiety trusted 2.5 mg femara, and news increasingly resembles entertainment womens health zymbiotix femara 2.5mg. Industry groups, nongovernmental organizations, and community groups target audiences via direct mail and e-mail, selecting, synthesizing, and thereby selectively emphasizing a limited range of news that may be editorialized. These developments have attracted relatively little research attention of direct relevance to tobacco use or the use of these media tools by either tobacco control or tobacco industry interests, suggesting an important gap in knowledge. Regardless, in whatever form they take, news sources are an important and often unparalleled source of information for both the general public and influential decision makers. The Role of the Media Tobacco issues have become increasingly newsworthy as organized public health efforts to reduce tobacco use have grown and tobacco issues have become more politicized. Over the last 40 years, the news media have paid significant attention to the tobacco-caused deaths of famous people; attempts to increase cigarette taxes, introduce and uphold smoke-free laws, and mount antismoking campaigns; criticism of tobacco industry advertising, promotions, and conduct in opposing effective tobacco controls; and private and state efforts to recover smokingrelated health care costs from the tobacco industry. Much of the increase in news coverage results from a rise in the number of newsworthy tobacco-related events in the United States and internationally. However, this increase also reflects explicit efforts to create newsworthy events and stories and to shape news coverage by those working to promote or to undermine tobacco control progress. The newsworthiness of tobacco control should not, however, be measured solely by the volume of news coverage. In this study, health stories were broadly defined as being those relating to national health policy, health issues or specific diseases and treatments, or social policy issues indirectly related to health, including elections, economic policy, gun control, poverty, welfare, and Social Security. The presence and prominence of tobacco control material in the news are indisputable. However, the tobacco control research community has largely neglected studying news coverage and the response to and influence of this coverage on smokers, on the broader community, and on policymakers. This low level of research effort, compared with the relatively high level of media coverage of tobacco issues and its potential impact, points to the need for a greater focus on media issues in tobacco control. This chapter examines concepts in news media coverage of tobacco, summarizes research on such coverage and its influence on tobacco use, and outlines a future research agenda based on trends found in existing data. By understanding the nature and potential impact of the news media, tobacco control stakeholders can gain a promising new area of knowledge in the fight to reduce the public disease burden due to smoking. Perspectives on News Story Selection and Content General news coverage can be viewed at a superficial level as a reflection of observable events happening in the world at a given time that are deemed newsworthy. Using this narrow definition, a change in the volume of coverage of an issue such as tobacco use could be considered to reflect a change in the occurrence of relevant, newsworthy events. In this vein, one research tradition focuses on the accuracy and comprehensiveness of news coverage12 and how they might be improved. The news media cannot simply reflect the external world because of its sheer vastness and complexity and because the media are a critical part of the mechanism through which that world is both assembled and understood. According to agenda-setting theory, the degree of emphasis the mass media place on an issue influences the priority the public affords to that issue. This designation suggests to the public that a topic is important or interesting enough to receive media attention, thereby implicitly contributing to public notions of the relative importance of issues and events. Further, the news media can choose, create, sustain, and Agenda Setting From a social problems viewpoint, the news media constitute a vital institutional arena within which competition for public attention to a given problem can occur. The Role of the Media shape an issue for public consumption by influencing how issues are presented or framed for consideration by the public and decision makers. The result is that audiences can be presented with an account of a problem as well as perspectives for thinking about it and potential avenues for its resolution. Some research has found that stakeholders who seek to shape media coverage in an effort to guide or oppose social change can instigate news coverage of an issue. For example, one study found that medical science reporting is based on regular journalistic review of a very limited number of top science journals. Analyzing mainstream news coverage as a reflection of powerful societal institutions as well as an instigator of change may, therefore, be most appropriate. Similarly, the identification of stakeholders in news media coverage of tobacco use issues is worthy of critical analysis.