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Also of interest in this respect are the reduction noted in cecal bacterial biotransformation activities (-glucosidase and -glucuronidase) and apparent ammonia production in rats fed raw potato or amylomaize starch, respectively [226]. The physiological impact of these changes in mucosal morphology should be evaluated. Taken together, the series represents both a contemporary survey of anthropology and a cutting edge guide to the emerging research and intellectual trends in the field as a whole. A Companion to Linguistic Anthropology, edited by Alessandro Duranti A Companion to the Anthropology of Politics, edited by David Nugent and Joan Vincent A Companion to the Anthropology of American Indians, edited by Thomas Biolsi A Companion to Psychological Anthropology, edited by Conerly Casey and Robert B. Edgerton A Companion to the Anthropology of Japan, edited by Jennifer Robertson A Companion to Latin American Anthropology, edited by Deborah Poole A Companion to Biological Anthropology, edited by Clark Larsen (hardback only) A Companion to the Anthropology of India, edited by Isabelle ClarkDecиs A Companion to Medical Anthropology, edited by Merrill Singer and Pamela I. Fischer A Companion to Cultural Resource Management, edited by Thomas King A Companion to the Anthropology of Education, edited by Bradley A. Levinson and Mica Pollack A Companion to the Anthropology of the Body and Embodiment, edited by Frances E. Bendix and Galit HasanRokem A Companion to Forensic Anthropology, edited by Dennis Dirkmaat A Companion to the Anthropology of Europe, edited by Ullrich Kockel, Mбirйad Nic Craith, and Jonas Frykman A Companion to Border Studies, edited by Thomas M. Wilson and Hastings Donnan A Companion to Rock Art, edited by Jo McDonald and Peter Veth A Companion to Moral Anthropology, edited by Didier Fassin A Companion to Gender Prehistory, edited by Diane Bolger A Companion to Organizational Anthropology, edited by D. Underhill A Companion to the Anthropology of Religion, edited by Janice Boddy and Michael Lambek A Companion to Urban Anthropology, edited by Donald M. Nonini A Companion to the Anthropology of the Middle East, edited by Soraya Altorki Forthcoming A Companion to Heritage Studies, edited by William Logan, Mбirйad Nic Craith, and Ullrich Kockel A Companion to Oral History, edited by Mark Tebeau A Companion to Dental Anthropology, edited by Joel D. Richard Scott A Companion to South Asia in the Past, edited by Gwen Robbins Schug and S. Walimbe A Companion to the Anthropology of the Middle East Edited by Soraya Altorki this edition first published 2015 © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published by University of California Press Chapter 16b, "The Mizrahi Cinema of Displacement," © 1989, 2010 Ella Shohat. Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks, or registered trademarks of their respective owners. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services, and neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. Cover image: Bus station in Cairo, Egypt © Barry Lewis / Alamy; Berber village near Tahnaout, High Atlas, Morocco, North Africa © Robert Harding World Imagery / Alamy; Turkish girls strolling in riverside park, Amasya © B. Hopkins 13 Displacement and Dispossession in the Middle East Dawn Chatty 14 Anthropology and Humanitarianism in the Middle East Ilana Feldman 15 Anthropologies of Middle Eastern Diasporas Paul A. He is the author of Questioning Secularism: Islam, Sovereignty and Rule of Law in Modern Egypt (2012), published by the University of Chicago Press. His current research explores historical and contemporary relationships between Judaism and Islam in France. Soraya Altorki is professor of anthropology in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at the American University in Cairo, where she has been teaching since 1977, serving as department chair from 1989 to 1991, and as unit head of anthropology several times. Her major fields of interest include the family, gender studies, youth, and comparative religion. She received her PhD in anthropology from the University of California, Berkeley in 1973. Professor Altorki was a distinguished visiting professor at King Saud University (1982 and 1983­1984) and a visiting assistant professor at King Abdulaziz University (1974­1976).

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Neoliberalism is part of a much longer and bloodier debate about the proper bounds of the free market 10 medications effective 1.5mg rivastigimine. Just as we need to read footnotes written by Adam Smith on the Levant and hospitality to rethink the making of market society medicine ads best 6 mg rivastigimine, we can learn from the footnotes of EvansPritchard medicine ketoconazole cream quality rivastigimine 3mg, and marginal comments of Polanyi as well medicine 123 quality 6 mg rivastigimine, to rethink neoliberalism in 2014. These tales have been relegated to the sidelines of our accounts of political economy and social theory, and of neoliberalism as well. Anthropology lies right in the center of the story of neoliberalism together with its close cousin, economics. After all, both spring from moral philosophy and a linked set of questions (Hann and Hart 2011). Concerns about Arab hospitality are linked to theories of productive labor; the gift is the twin master devise of the invisible hand (Douglas 1990). The knowledge problem faced by Hayek and von Mises in the calculation debate of the 1930s takes on the same dilemma faced by Malinowski in the Trobriand Islands during World War I. We need to restore neoliberalism to the context of a longer trajectory of thinking in anthropology and economics about the free market and its bounds. The link between markets and blood reappears with tales of the Arab in EvansPritchard. Arabs remained the starting point for reemerging links between markets and violence with the invasion of Iraq. Violence was presented as a necessary conduit for free market development, even if an estimated 20% of Iraqis might have to die in the process-a conservative estimate as it turns out (ibid. Is it only in the Middle East and Africa that the expansion of free markets is linked to violence? Or do we need to reconsider the ways in which we think about neoliberalism and its complex links to moral philosophy, violence, and the remaking of complex commercial societies into a utopian dream of a free market society the world round? AcknoWledgments For helpful feedback on earlier versions of this chapter, my thanks to Asad Ahmed, Nathan Coben, Essam Fawzi, Tomaz Mastnak, William Maurer, Timothy Mitchell, Simone Popperl, Ajantha Subramanian, members of the Harvard Political Anthropology Working Group and, especially, Soraya Altorki. Numerous economists and political scientists have taken up the lens of neoliberalism to analyze what has come to be known as the Arab Spring (see. From a longer tradition in economic anthropology, there is an important body of research on property in Islamic law, ranging from work on property rights in water in Yemen (Mundy 1995; Limbert 2010) to research on waqf and property in Palestine (Doumani 1998). As numerous commentators have noted, Smith confused the technical and the social divisions of labor (Foley 2008). But the Turk in the East could not be rendered invisible or nonexistent, due to a long history of military struggle with the West since the Crusades, and the continued importance of the Ottoman army, political system, and markets. Sharon Hutchinson brings this aspect of the Nuer into the forefront in her restudy of the Nuer (Hutchinson 1996). The fact that accounting practices were a "major source of inspiration for the earliest economists" has been noted by many in the area of "critical accounting," as nicely reviewed by Chiapello (2008). Cairo Cosmopolitanism: Politics, Culture, and Urban Space in the New Globalized Middle East. Paper presented at the University of Oxford "Democracy, Governance, and Development Conference Series. Empowerment Money: the World Bank, NonGovernmental Organizations, and the Value of Culture in Egypt. Before (and After) Neoliberalism: Tacit Knowledge, Secrets of Trade, and the Public Sector in Egypt. The Nuer: A Description of the Modes of Livelihood and Political Institutions of a Nilotic People. Peddlers and Princes: Social Change and Economic Modernization in Two Indonesian Towns. The Visual Remaking of Urban Space: Relocation and the Use of Public Housing in "Modern" Cairo. Remaking the Modern: Space, Relocation, and the Politics of Identity in a Global Cairo. When the State and Your Kidneys Fail: Political Etiologies in an Egyptian Dialysis Ward.

The therapist may simply help her become aware of basic sights medicine 44291 proven 3mg rivastigimine, sounds treatment cervical cancer buy 1.5mg rivastigimine, somatic reactions treatment resistant anxiety quality rivastigimine 4.5 mg, feelings medicine quotes generic rivastigimine 1.5mg, and thoughts as well as what her attention drifts to . The immediate contact between therapist and client is a component of the "now" where these sensations are explored directly. The therapist might notice and ask about her style of eye contact, or her fidgeting body, or stream of thoughts. The therapist might invite her to name and explore the sensation that the thought of death, for example, brings; perhaps this involves a sense of a void, or feeling cold and dark, or a feeling of engulfment. She then may be asked to become these sensations-for example, the therapist may ask her to be "the void" and encourage her to speak as if she were that void. This may then open possibilities for a dialog with the void through acting out the opposite polarity: separateness and choice. This might involve using an empty chair technique in which the client would literally move into the chair of the "void," speak as if she were that, and then move into an opposite chair and respond in a dialog. A therapist could also explore her introjection through questions such as, "How is this void different or the same as from the feeling of alcohol or in relationships with your children or husband? Sandra seems to have a great deal of "unfinished business" that involves unexpressed feelings. Experimentation with these sensations may begin to free her to express and meet these feelings more directly. Each person has a unique identity that can only be known through relationships with others. The meaning of life and of existence is never fixed; rather, it constantly changes. An individual achieves authenticity through courage and is thus able to define and discover his own meaning in the present and the future. A core characteristic of the existential view is that an individual is a "being in the world" who has biological, social, and psychological needs. The "authentic" individual values symbolization, imagination, and judgment and is able to use these tools to continually create personal meaning. The contemporary existential psychotherapist, Irvin Yalom, identifies these concerns as death, isolation, freedom, and emptiness. Existential therapy focuses on the anxiety that occurs when a client confronts the conflict inherent in life. The role of the therapist is to help the client focus on personal responsibility for making decisions, and the therapist may integrate some 118 humanistic approaches and techniques. Yalom, for example, perceives the therapist as a "fellow traveler" through life, and he uses empathy and support to elicit insight and choices. He strongly believes that because people exist in the presence of others, the relational context of group therapy is an effective approach (Yalom, 1980). Preliminary observations and research indicate individuals with low levels of perceived meaning in life may be prone to substance abuse as a coping mechanism. Frankl first observed this possibility among inpatient drug abusers in Germany during the 1930s (Frankl, 1959). Nicholson and colleagues found inpatient drug abusers had significantly lower levels of meaning in life when compared to a group of matched, nonabusing control subjects (Nicholson et al. Shedler and Block performed a longitudinal study and found that lower levels of perceived life meaning among young children preceded substance abuse patterns in adolescence (Shedler and Block, 1990). In the context of treating substance abuse disorders, the existential therapist often serves as a coach helping the client confront the anxiety that tempts him to abuse substances. The client is then focused on taking responsibility and making his own choices to remain substance free. If he chooses to avoid the anxiety through substances, he cannot move forward to find truth and authenticity. The challenge for the existential therapist is to help the client make personal decisions about how to live, drawing upon creativity and love, instead of letting outside events determine behavior. Brief therapy Brief Humanistic and Existential Therapies (no matter what the modality) must be concerned with the "here and now. Hoyt suggests that in brief therapy time should always be an issue for discussion, and the therapist should make a point of reminding the client of his use of time and the time scheduled for terminating therapy (Hoyt, 1995). Therefore, she is challenged to forge meaning from her life and make difficult decisions about her relationships and ways of dealing (or not dealing) with choices about substance abuse.

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Understanding the extent of the existing health problem caused by T2D puts into perspective the urgent need for programs to prevent T2D and its complications schedule 9 medications purchase rivastigimine 4.5mg. In this chapter I will address recent estimates for the prevalence of diabetes along with changes in the patterns of prevalence symptoms 6 days post embryo transfer order rivastigimine 3 mg, especially the emergence of T2D in youth medications kidney damage generic 4.5mg rivastigimine. The evidence for diabetes risk factors harrison internal medicine proven 1.5 mg rivastigimine, categorized as either fixed, related to early life, or modifiable, will be assessed including underlying issues with the means of measurement. Again special mention will be given to the evidence for measures of risk in childhood. Finally, the data for the current socioeconomic impact of diabetes will be considered along with the evidence for the cost-effectiveness of T2D prevention. Statistics the quality of data available on the current prevalence of T2D varies from country to country [1]. Data for figure taken from National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website diabetes. While these estimates are not broken down by diabetes type, T2D accounts for 90­95% of all cases of diabetes in adults [2]. The United States ranks third overall in number of adults with diabetes with only India and China having more cases in both 2000 and projected by 2030. Along with the increasing number of people with diabetes, there is also the worrying trend that the mean age of onset for T2D is falling. Earlier onset of T2D has major implications for the health of the population as the complications of diabetes are strongly related to diabetes duration. Among the Pima Indians where youth onset T2D is less rare than in many other populations, younger onset of T2D is associated with increased risk of developing end-stage renal disease by middle age as well as being associated with an increased risk of premature mortality [4]. In keeping with this, diabetes is also becoming more common among children and this is due to increases in both type 1 and T2D. While type 1 diabetes accounts for most cases of diabetes among children aged under 10 years, T2D is becoming 4 Epidemiology Including Youth Through Adulthood and Socioeconomic Impact 43 increasingly common in older children especially among particular ethnic groups. They found that while type 1 diabetes remained the commonest form of diabetes among children that T2D is no longer the rarity that it was in past decades. For Asian/Pacific Islander Americans and Native American children aged 10­19 years, the incidence of T2D was higher than that for type 1 diabetes while for Hispanic and non-Hispanic Blacks the rates for T2D and type 1 diabetes were similar in this age group [5]. A study of mortality among Pima Indians with T2D found that the introduction of more effective treatment for renal disease in diabetes had led to a marked increase in mortality due to cardiovascular disease. So as deaths due to diabetic nephropathy declined, the death rate overall was maintained due to the rise in deaths due to cardiovascular disease [6]. While treatment options for diabetes continue to expand and management of diabetic complications improves, the increase in prevalence is predicted to push the global mortality rates, due to diabetes, upwards. Whereas diabetes was the 11th most common cause of death globally in 2002, it is projected to have increased to the 7th leading cause by 2030 [7]. Risk Factors for T2D When considering the risk factors for T2D, one can divide them into those that are modifiable and those that are unmodifiable or fixed. This is to some degree arbitrary but generally the fixed risk factor is one that an at-risk individual has no power to change. However, when considering diabetes prevention the interventions are primarily focused on the modifiable or behavioral risk factors. It is becoming apparent that early life elements may have an impact on later disease and these have been classified here as early life risk factors as they could be open to modification if we aim to target early life but in most studies are no longer modifiable. Fixed Risk Factors Genetic predisposition: the role genetics play in T2D has long been accepted with the observations of the risks associated with ethnicity and family history and that these factors remain strong even after adjustment for other individual risk factors such as obesity. Ethnicity: As outlined above prevalence of T2D is higher among certain ethnic groups than others and these differences are not all explained by adjustment for lifestyle-related risk factors [8]. The ethnic groups that have the highest risks for T2D include Native Americans, Australian Aborigines, South Asians, Hispanics, and African Americans. The Pima Indians of Arizona have the highest prevalence of T2D of any population [9]. However, it should be noted that the Pima Indians who settled in the mountains of Mexico have far lower prevalence despite being genetically identical showing that the relationship between risk and ethnicity is also dependent on other risk factors such as lifestyle and obesity [10]. Familial: A family history of T2D is a strong risk factor for T2D especially when considering T2D in first degree relatives [12].