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Studies that involve matching children with reading problems to others at the same level of reading skill (rather than to age mates) address some of these problems but at the cost of introducing other sources of difficultycomparing two groups of different ages quit smoking with laser treatment order nicotinell 52.5 mg, with different school histories quit smoking humor effective 52.5 mg nicotinell, and different levels of perceived success in school quit smoking encouragement safe nicotinell 17.5mg. They do quit smoking 6 month benefits purchase nicotinell 52.5mg, however, enable the researcher to trace developmental pathways for participants who are not systematically different from one another at recruitment and thus to draw stronger conclusions about the likely directionality of cause-effect relationships. As part of the methodological context for this report, we wish to address explicitly a misconception that some readers may have derived from our emphasis on the logic of an experiment as the most powerful justification for a causal conclusion. By such an emphasis, we do not mean to imply that only studies employing true experimental logic are to be used in drawing conclusions. To the contrary, as mentioned previously in our discussion of converging evidence, the results from many different types of investigations are usually weighed to derive a general conclusion, and the basis for the conclusion rests on the convergence observed from the variety of methods used. For example, it is often (but not always) the case that experimental investigations are high in internal validity but limited in external validity, whereas correlational studies are often high in external validity but low in internal validity. Internal validity concerns whether we can infer a causal effect for a particular variable. The internal validity of qualitative research studies depends, of course, on their capacity to reflect reality adequately and accurately. Procedures for ensuring adequacy of qualitative data include triangulation (comparison of findings from different research perspectives), cross-case analyses, negative case analysis, and so forth. Just as for quantitative studies, our review of qualitative studies has been selective and our conclusions took into account the methodological rigor of each study within its own paradigm. External validity concerns the generalizability of the conclusion to the population and setting of interest. Experimental laboratory investigations are high in internal validity but may not fully address concerns about external validity. Field class- room investigations are often quite high in external validity but, because of the logistical difficulties involved in carrying out such investigations, are often quite low in internal validity. Hence, there is a need to look for a convergence of resultsnot just consistency across studies conducted with one method. Convergence across different methods increases confidence that the conclusions have both internal and external validity. First, many scientific hypotheses are stated in terms of correlation or lack of correlation, so that such studies are directly relevant to these hypotheses. Second, although correlation does not imply causation, causation does imply correlation. That is, although a correlational study cannot definitively prove a causal hypothesis, it may rule one out. Third, correlational studies are more useful than they used to be because some of the recently developed complex correlational designs allow for limited causal inferences. The technique of partial correlation, widely used in studies cited in this report, provides a case in point. It makes possible a test of whether a particular third variable is accounting for a relationship. Perhaps the most important argument for quasi-experimental studies, however, is that some variables (for instance, human malnutrition, physical disabilities) simply cannot be manipulated for ethi- cal reasons. Other variables, such as birth order, sex, and age, are inherently correlational because they cannot be manipulated, and therefore the scientific knowledge concerning them must be based on correlational evidence. Finally, logistical difficulties in carrying out classroom and curriculum research often render impossible the logic of the true experiment. However, this circumstance is not unique to educational or psychological research. Astronomers obviously can- not manipulate the variables affecting the objects they study, yet they are able to arrive at scientifically founded conclusions. We see this as crucial background information for understanding reading difficulties and their prevention. In Chapter 4 we discuss risk factors that may help identify children who will have problems learning to read. Chapter 6 discusses prevention and literacy instruction delivered in classrooms in kindergarten and the primary grades. Chapter 7 presents our analysis of organizational factors, at the classroom, school, or district level, that contribute to prevention and intervention for grades 1 through 3.


  • Benign familial infantile convulsions
  • Short limb dwarf lethal Mcalister Crane type
  • McPherson Clemens syndrome
  • Holzgreve Wagner Rehder syndrome
  • Odonto onycho dysplasia with alopecia
  • Pigmented villonodular synovitis

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However quit smoking 6 months pregnant quality nicotinell 35mg, people who were in the same environment and were potentially exposed to the same source of infection as the plague patients should be given prophylactic antibiotics quit smoking nhs generic nicotinell 35mg. In addition quit smoking lower blood pressure quality nicotinell 17.5 mg, previously vaccinated individuals should receive prophylactic antibiotics if they have been exposed to plague aerosols quit smoking nhs quality nicotinell 52.5mg. Natural antibiotic resistance is rare in Y pestis; however, a chilling report appeared in 1997 of a human isolate in Madagascar resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, kanamycin, and sulfonamide. However, this vaccine was discontinued by its manufacturers in 1999 and is no longer available. Many investigators continue to believe that live attenuated vaccines are preferable to subunit vaccines. Even the most recent reviews on plague vaccination continue to revisit the appeal of live attenuated vaccines. F1, a capsular antigen of Y pestis, appears to prevent phagocytosis of plague bacilli, whereas V antigen has a key role in the translocation of the cytotoxic Yops into host cells, as well as stimulating the production of immunosuppressive cytokines. Plague is maintained in nature, predominately in urban and sylvatic rodents and flea vectors. Humans are not necessary for the persistence of the organism, and they acquire the disease from animal fleas, contact with infected animals, or, rarely, from other humans via aerosol or direct contact with infected secretions. Healthcare providers must understand the typical way in which humans contract plague in nature to differentiate endemic disease from plague used in biological warfare. First, a die-off of the mammalian reservoir that harbors bacteria-infected fleas will occur. Second, troops who have been in close proximity to such infected mammals will become infected and typically develop the bubonic form of the disease. By contrast, in the most likely biological warfare scenario, plague would spread via aerosol and result in primary pneumonic plague cases. Person-to-person spread of fulminant pneumonia, characterized by blood-tinged sputum, would then ensue. If, however, an enemy force released fleas infected with Y pestis, the soldiers would present with classic bubonic plague before a die-off in the local mammalian reservoir occurred, although such a die-off may be possible later if the introduced strain of Y pestis succeeded in proliferating among local rodent populations. The most common form of the disease is bubonic plague, characterized by painful lymphadenopathy and severe constitutional symptoms of fever, chills, and headache. Septicemic plague without localized lymphadenopathy occurs less commonly and is difficult to diagnose. Primary pneumonic plague is spread by airborne transmission, when infectious respiratory droplets from an infected human or animal are inhaled or a person inhales an aerosol released as the result of biological weapon attack. Rapid diagnosis may be made with fluorescent antibody stains of sputum or tissue specimens or detection of F1 antigen in serum. Although the licensed, killed, whole-cell vaccine is no longer available, a new vaccine that appears to protect against pneumonic plague is in advanced development. Acknowledgments We thank Andrea Stossel and Laura Kalinyak for assistance with collecting references for this chapter and the reviewers for their thoughtful comments. In addition, Dr Kenneth Gage provided valuable insight into the ecology of plague. This chapter is dedicated to long-time plague researchers Lieutenant Colonel Dan C Cavanaugh and Lieutenant Colonel John D Marshall, who made outstanding and enduring contributions to public health and military medicine in their careers as both Army officers and as civil servants. Bubonic plague: a molecular genetic case history of the emergence of an infectious disease. Cat-transmitted fatal pneumonic plague in a person who traveled from Colorado to Arizona. Early-phase transmission of Yersinia pestis by unblocked fleas as a mechanism explaining rapidly spreading plague epizootics. Plague gives surprises in the first decade of the 21st century in the United States and worldwide.

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The second measure allows for a range of satisfaction; such a scale would make it easier to detect differences in the amount of life satisfaction quit smoking keep coughing order 52.5 mg nicotinell. The issue of sensitivity is particularly important when measuring human performance quit smoking 800 quit now effective nicotinell 35 mg. Memory can be measured using recall quit smoking 80524 zip code nicotinell 52.5mg, recognition quit smoking campaign safe nicotinell 35mg, or reaction time; cognitive task performance might be measured by examining speed or number of errors during a proofreading task; physical performance can be measured through various motor tasks. Sometimes, a task is so easy that everyone does well regardless of the conditions that are manipulated. This results in what is called a ceiling effect (scores are at the top of the scale). Suppose you wish to test cognitive status in healthy, nonhospitalized retirement community residents by asking them to count from 1 to 100 and measuring their errors. Their performance would probably not differ Significantly from that of a comparison group of younger adults. However, a more difficult task, such as counting backward from 582 by 3s, might reveal cognitive differences between the young and elderly adults. Conversely, a task that is too difficult can result in a floor effect (scores are at the bottom of the scale). Asking participants to perform mental multiplication with three-digit numbers would probably not reveal any meaningful differences between the young and elderly adults, because hardly anyone could do the task. Any time performance is at the top or the bottom of the scale of measurement, the researcher cannot be sure that a more sensitive measure would not have detected differences between the groups. High school students were taught the "keyword" mnemonic strategy to learn facts about cities; for example, forming a mental picture of "ham" to remember "Hammondville. The next day the students were instructed to remember facts about presidents (five facts per president; for example,jefferson was a skilled violinist and a landscape designer). Contrary to expectation, the mnemonic group did not score higher than the control group on the presidents task. One explanation is that the keyword method is ineffective and only works in particular situations. Dretzke and Levin revised the task to only three facts per 165 president and obtained the expected advantage for the keyword method in a second experiment. Ceiling and floor effects are particularly troublesome in developmental research when you are comparing individuals who differ substantially in age. For example, making a comparison on some aspect of cognitive development across the childhood years presents a challenge for the researcher. The cognitive development of a 10-year-old is extremely advanced compared to that of a typical 5-year-old. The older child has more experience with cognitive tasks and tends to have more memory skills and strategies to rely on when learning new material. If you present a list of 10 items to both age groups of children, you may get a ceiling effect in one group and a floor effect in the other group, eliminating any chance of identifying meaningful developmental differences. Another approach is to present a longer list to the older group and then convert scores to a percentage for a more equitable comparison. Selecting Dependent Measures Multiple Measures It is often desirable to measure more than one dependent variable. One reason to use multiple measures stems from the fact that a variable can be measured in a variety of concrete ways, with different operational definitions (see Chapter 4). In a study of wellness, for example, you might measure the number of doctor visits, the number of medications, the use of vitamin and mineral supplements, dietary and sleeping habits, or perhaps physiological measures of blood pressure and heart rate. The independent variable is type of living arrangement, comparing elderly adults living alone versus living with a spouse. You would expect to find differences in wellness between these groups of individuals on several measures of wellness. One possible outcome is that elderly adults living alone may have more doctor visits, more medications, and poorer diets. This is useful because our confidence in the results is increased if the same results are found with a variety of operational definitions. You also may find that the type of living arrangement does not have any effect on some dependent measures-maybe blood pressure and heart rate do not vary as a function of living arrangement. Taking multiple measurements in a single experiment using the multimethod approach is valuable when it is feasible to do so.

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