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In further contrast with the case of the electric force impotence propecia purchase extra super levitra 100 mg, parallel currents attract and antiparallel currents repel impotence specialist proven extra super levitra 100 mg. The angular frequency of precession erectile dysfunction pump as seen on tv extra super levitra 100 mg, known as the Larmor frequency (fR) erectile dysfunction protocol free download pdf buy 100mg extra super levitra, is proportional to the external magnetic field, B, that is, fR = B (8. The nuclei of different elements and even of different isotopes of the same element have very different frequencies (Table 8. In biological materials, the magnetic nuclei of 1H, 13C, 23Na, 336 Biomedical Imaging Table 8. The hydrogen being the abundant material with the largest magnetic moment is the best element for biomedical applications. Particles with nonzero nuclear spins can split their energy levels in a magnetic field. The difference in the energy (E) of the two states, which dictates the difference in the populations, depends on the strength of the magnetic field: h h f = B0 2 2 31 E = (8. Boltzmann, the proportion of protons in the two states can be calculated as E - N2 = e kT N1 (8. The populations of the two states differ slightly, with a few more nuclei per million aligned with B0 than against. If the nucleus is immersed in a magnetic field, its spin (and therefore its magnetic moment) gives it potential energy. By flipping the spin from 1/2 to -1/2 via radiating the nucleus with photons of frequency f, the radiation can be used to image objects. These processes cause nuclei to flip between the two orientations, modifying the population distribution from Boltzman population. While the bulk magnetization is tipped away from alignment, it will precess around B0 for the same reason that a spinning top wobbles around the direction of gravity (replace the force of gravity with the force due to B0) [Figure 8. A resonant condition (resonance describes the maximum transfer of energy when the system is tuned to a particular frequency, termed resonance frequency) is achieved in which M tips, (or nutates), from the z-axis towards the xy plane. The nutation continues until B1 is removed, so the amplitude and duration of B1 can be tailored to nutate M through specific angles. A special case is that in which M is nutated entirely into the transverse plane, leaving no magnetization along the z-axis. Spatial encoding is based on using gradient coils, which generate spatially varying magnetic field so that spins at different locations precess at frequencies unique to their location. The temporary imposition of an additional static magnetic field, which lies parallel to B0 but varies linearly in strength with position along the x-, y-, or z-axis (or indeed some direction oblique to these axes) [Figure 8. This frequency variation can be used in three ways to achieve spatial localization. What frequencies (relative to the isocenter frequency) are contained in the Fourier transformed spectrum? The second option is usually used as it is not easy to change the isocenter of a given gradient coil. The signal can be decomposed using Fourier transform methods to determine the amount of signal at each frequency and hence at each position, resulting in a projection through the sample. The acquired signal originates from the entire object under study, and spatial information is obtained only by breaking that signal down. By repeating the experiment a number of times with different gradient amplitudes, it is possible to generate a set of data in the third dimension and have the data Fourier transformed to yield spatial information along the direction perpendicular to the frequency encoding axis [Figure 8. During signal acquisition, the phase of the xy-magnetization vector in different columns will systematically differ. When the x- or y-component of the signal is plotted as a function of the phase-encoding step number n, it varies sinusoidally.

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